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Research Bulletin of the NACSIS, No.8 (1996.3)

[last update: 1996.12.27]

1. Hitoshi INOUE
A reappraisal of Ruth Benedict's The Chrysanthemum and the Sword : issues of sources/texts/references and beyond (English)

ABSTRACT: Ruth Benedict's The Chrysanthemum and the Sword: Patterns of Japanese Culture, published in 1946, being the source of controversial issues for bothdomestic and foreign scholars interested in the study of Japan for last 50 years, is resuming its potent influence not because half a century has passed since the end of the World War II, but because current scrutiny and assessment by Pauline Kent, of International Research Center for Japanese Studies, of Benedict's contribution for the Office of War Information, in Washington DC, based upon her research at Special Collections Library, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY, is throwing a new light on the previously established evaluation of the important book, of which the author had neither come to Japan nor understood Japanese language. The purpose of the paper is to suggest the correction of the course of studyon The Chrysanthemum and the Sword, partly by referring to the new discoveries of Pauline Kent, and locate the source of the unceasing influence in Benedict's skillful handling of information by an analysis of some newly-found unpublished materials. Conclusions include a reappraisal of her detached standpoint to keep away from the flood of information on one hand, and in satiable seek for information of scarcity value on the other.

2. Hirosi TATUOKA, Hisao YAMADA
On the Theory and Practice of the Romanized Writing System for Japanese (English)

ABSTRACT: The first national standard for the romanized spelling of Japanese was established in 1937, and it was slightly revised in 1954 to the present Kunrei standard. The Kunrei standard was made an ISO standard in 1989, but without the Hepburnvariants of spelling that were in the 1954 version as an interim provision before the complete changeover to the proper Kunrei standard.
The existence of such national and international standards notwithstanding, the prevailing usage even today is of the English-leaning Hepburn system. Such poor adherence to the Kunrei standard arises no doubt from the inaction of government agencies to implement its adoption. However, a deeper reason for this negative attitude is the lack of understanding of the linguistic foundations of the Kunrei system.
The main objective of the present note is to highlight this theoretical foundation, with relevant information from actual practice, to promote wider acceptance of the Kunrei standard.

3. Harumi MASUMORI, Akiyo TAKAKI, Akihisa KITAMURA, Eisuke NAITO
Awareness of Authors towards Electronic Publishing of University Research Bulletin : A Survey at the Kagoshima University (Japanese)

ABSTRACT: Awareness towards electronic submission to university research bulletins was surveyed in early 1995 at the Kagoshima University. As of February 1995, 29 titles of research bulletins were published, in which 254 papers were included. 154 authors who are the first author or author of more than one paper were identified. These authors form 15% of all faculty staff of the university. Amongst all respondents, 117 authors (88%) prepared manuscripts electronically. Varieties of hardware and software were employed. Although the modes of submission of papers depend on the rules of submission, 37 authors (28%) submitted their manuscripts in print-out with electronic forms. Awareness for network publishing, that is not yet realized, is of transition, and parallel publishing is of demand. Attitudes to submission rules and procedure is un-matured, and opinion to the standardization of electronic form (formatting) is diversed. Early development of the submission rules is required.

4. Hiroshi TSURUOKA, Keizo OYAMA, Eisuke NAITO
Extension of a Full Text Database Retrieval System for Internet Environment : Access to Text Image Data : the Case of the Bulletin of Kagoshima Univ. Liberal Arts (Japanese)

ABSTRACT: This paper described the method of displaying the text image with the both SGML data and the text image data concering the scholarly information dissemination systems by network. Especialy, we discussed the example of the bulletin of thekagoshima university of liberal arts.

5. Noriko KANDO
Text Structure Analysis Based on Human Recognition : Cases of Japanese Newspaper Articles and English Newspaper Articles (Japanese)

ABSTRACT: This paper described the results of the experiments to reveal the text structures of newspaper articles which most people recognized consistently. As results of text structure analysis using the typical functional components, i.e., Maindescription, Elaboration of main description, historical Background, Prospective, and Opinion, all the subjects accepted these components and the consistency ratio among the subjects were higher than 80% for each categories both in Japansearticles and English articles. As results of the "5 W's and 1 H'" analysis, most subjects consistently recognized the components of 'who', 'when', 'where' andmain part of 'what', but some problems for analysis of Japanese text were indicated. The paper also discussed the analytical units and linguistic clues. Implications for the information extraction from text and enhancement of the fulltext database retrieval are discussed.

Browsing Activity on the Research Process (Japanese)

ABSTRACT: "Browsing" is an important activity for research process, particularly in humanities. Browsing is generally differentiated from "searching." The differencesbetween them are ambiguities of these knowledge: content of information that researchers want to know, their search path and location that they will find useful information. One of the remarkable feature of browsing is serendipity, that isa kind of ability to stumble upon relevant items. Browsing with serendipity plays an essential role on research not only as a means of getting information, but also of locating these pieces of information into space of researcher's officeand ordering some ideas about one's research. And those materials on ones' shelf that were browsed by researchers provide some kind of index to remind them ofthese contents. Space of browsed materials and one's research are constructed interactively.

7. Yuan SUN
Indices for Detecting Aberrant Response Patterns (Japanese)

ABSTRACT: An increasing number of researchers have begun to show an interest in using information obtained from analyses of response patterns rather than using information included only in the total score of a test. It is important to identify individuals for whom test scores are not a representative measure of test performance. This paper introduces two indices based on item response theory for detecting aberrant response patterns. Their statistical properties are investigated andthe relationships between the two indices are discussed.

A study on lexcal items in Yakut language (1) : Color terms in Saxa epic poem olonxo (Japanese)

ABSTRACT: This paper is concerned with lexical items in Yakut language, which belongs to the Turkic language family. The main part of the Yakut language community is consisted with Yakut or Saxa people. Their language traces well the process of their immigration to Siberia. In this paper, the author presents the data of the set of lexical items "colors" from the olonxo "kïïs Däbilijä", one of the most famous epics of the Saxa people and suggests that such approach to the study of lexicon is effective to uncover the complicated situation of languages in Siberia.

9. Thierry Ribault
Information infrastructure in a "relational capitalism" : the case of Japan (English)

ABSTRACT: We propose in this paper to re-interpret culturalist approaches of informational behaviours of the Japanese economic system. Following those approaches, information in Japan is quickly and very efficiently disseminated into the economicand social fabric because of the existence of "natural" mutual confidence mechanisms and because of stabilization of relations between social actors. Our research shows that one can discuss those approaches, as well in their results as in their method. Concerning the method, we show that a broader conception of economics taking in account the developments of "patrimonial management" can help us to explain why there is a quasi-absence of market mechanisms concerning information production and dissemination in Japan. Concerning the results, we show that thebasis of Japanese relational capitalism are not unshakable and that it needs acontinuing research of compromise between diverging interests if one want to preserve it. Thus,in Japan as anywhere else, the information infrastructure is socially and politically constructed in permanent evolution.

10. Akiko AIZAWA
Dependency Extraction by Space Decomposition and Walsh Function Analysis (Japanese)

ABSTRACT: Walsh function analysis is known to be useful for dependency analysis of unconstrained 0/1 optimization problems. Dispite the promising feature,the method isonly applicable to trivial size of problems due to the computational expensiveness. In this paper, we define a simple statistical measure, variance of decompositions,to characterize the solution space and show the relationship between themeasure and Walsh coefficients. Based on this, we derive a new criteria for dependency extraction.

11. Jun ADACHI
On an Information Management Method for Digital Library Systems (Japanese)

ABSTRACT: The recognition, retrieval, and identification of information objects scattered over a widely distributed network environment are key factors for implementing large-scale multi-media document databases including images and other modal informations. In this paper the auth proposes a new approach for information management using URS (Uniform Resource Specification), whichis applied to the next version of NACSIS-ELS (NACSIS electronic Library system). The discussion is based on the survey of prior works, the necessity of object identification, along with illustrating the configuration and implementation of the software. The issues left for future works are also mentioned.

12. Masanori SUGIMOTO, Norio KATAYAMA, Mika KOSHIZUKA, Noriko KANDO, Atsuhiro TAKASU, Jun ADACHI
An Overview of Digital Library Researches (Japanese)

ABSTRACT: This paper gives an overview of digital library researches.First we make their features clear by describing (1) what kind of data are stored, (2) what kind of search methods are realized, and (3) what kind of browsing methods can be used.Then, we describe major digital libraries which have been developed in United States, Japan and European countries.Finaly, we discuss some problems and futureworks on digital libraries.

13. Suwan RUNGGERATIGUL, Weiping ZHAO, Shoichiro ASANO
Link Capacity Assignment in Packet-Switched Networks with Existing Network Consideration : The Case of Concave Cost Function (English)

ABSTRACT: When communication network planning-design is performed, it is generally important to utilize existing facilities in the construction of new network. In the previous work of the authors, link capacity assignment problem (CA problem) is studied for packet-switched networks under the consideration of existing network and convex link cost function. The convex cost function arises especially in the case of short-term network design where per-unit cost of newly installed capacity is greater than that of existing capacity. However, in other cases such as long-term network design, cost function is generally concave. In this paper, the CA problem is again investigated with the consideration of existing network in the case of concave link cost function. To deal with this, a non-linear and non-differentiable function composing of two portions of capacity cost is used to model the link cost function. The function is a piecewise linear function which is similar to the one considered in the previous work; except that, this time, it is concave.
Once the CA problem is formulated, an important characteristic of the optimal solution is derived. It is that there is no link whose capacity is equal to its existing capacity in the optimal solution of the problem. Based on this characteristic, two heuristic algorithms derived from Lagrange multiplier method are presented. Although it is difficult to determine global optimal solution of the CA problem due to its non-convexity, it is shown by investigating numerical results that solutions obtained from the proposed algorithms are very closed to the global optimal solution. Moreover, their computation times are very small even in the case of large-scaled network. Thus, we finally conclude that the proposed heuristic algorithms are very powerful for solving the CA problem with concave link cost function.

14. Weiping ZHAO, Shoichiro ASANO
A Method to Assign End-end Transmission QoS to Multiple Links (English)

ABSTRACT: In the future ATM-WAN linking ATM-LANs, it is very important to do traffic control across multilinks. Especially, when QoS of a call is required to be guaranteed it is necessary to assign its requirement of QoS to each link from the source node to the destination node and to calculate QoS like transmission delays that links can provide at the stage of call admission acceptance. After describing problems of existing QoS assignment schemes, this paper proposes a dynamic onethat assigns QoS to each link according to its traffic status. In our scheme, the concept of critical utilization factor of link is introduced to approximate the transmission delay the link can guarantee after a new call accepted.For a simple network model with connections of three links, the call blocking rate and network utilization of the scheme were numerically analyzed and simulated. The numerical examples and simulation results show that the proposed scheme can hold down call blocking rate and promote the utilization of network resources.

15. Yusheng JI
Bandwidth Allocation in High-Speed Switching Nodes with Limited Buffer Space (Japanese)

ABSTRACT: In high-speed, integrated-service networks, it is important to choose an appropriate service discipline, which controls the transmission priority of packets at switching nodes, to meet various requirements for the quality of services. For this purpose, we have proposed a service discipline called the Virtual Rate-Based Queueing(VRBQ), by which a designated amount of bandwidth can be guaranteed for each connection in the network. In this paper, we examine the packet delay in switching nodes with limited buffer space when VRBQ discipline is applied. Then using the notation of Effective Bandwidth, we propose a bandwidth allocation method, through which the delay and loss quality can be bound in such switching nodes.

16. Masato OGUCHI
A Study on Caching Proxy Mechanisms in a Wide Area Network Environment (English)

ABSTRACT: The information retrieval systems on a wide area distributed network, such as the World-Wide Web(WWW), become popular among the extremely large number of users. The caching proxy has an important role on these systems for improving their accessibility and serviceability.
In this paper, the caching proxy mechanism is discussed as follows: First, the role and structure of the caching proxy are explained, and problems of existing systems are pointed out. Next, two measures are proposed to overcome the problems of the existing systems. An improved caching proxy mechanism, based upon these ideas, is shown finally.

17. Teruo KOYAMA, Toshiharu TAURA, Tadao KAWAGUCHI
Research on Natural Law Database (Japanese)

ABSTRACT: Because the behaviors of artifacts are ruled by natural laws, providing information about natural laws and the results of applying the laws to real situations can be quite valuable in intelligent CAD systems. In this paper, the auths discuss about the representation scheme which make natural laws machine operable. The auths also report an implementation of a natural law database on object-oriented database.

18. Frederic Andres, Kinji ONO
A High Efficient Multimedia DBMS in Object Management (English)

ABSTRACT: Multimedia applications require on-line accesses to different types of information like books, images, videos, and scientific data. One cornerstone of these services is the multimedia storage servers. Differing from conventional commercial data base systems, such servers should (1) be independent of a particular data model but cooperate with any, (2) offer facilities to exploit new hardware architecture trend, and (3) be fully general to support efficiently wide range of multimedia objects, and (4) offer facilities to enforce applications consistency of related objects. Our focus is to present Chameleon, a Parallel Application-Oriented Database System(AODMS). It is designed to reach the new information systems' requirements and to use the power and the trends of the new generation ofhardware. The major contribution of Chameleon is the application-oriented data storage manager, the dynamic optimisation of both inter and intra-operation parallelism and the exploitation of operating system services such as multi-threadingor memory mappings for efficient concurrent execution. The current Chameleon prototype runs on a SPARC Station 20/50 MHz bi-processors. Chameleon is being integrated at NACSIS inside the On-line Image Processing System.

19. Hiromichi HASHIZUME
A Pattern Matching Algorithm for Kanji And Its Reading (Japanese)

ABSTRACT: There have been many attempts to generate reading texts from written Japanese texts (which contain kana and kanji characters) using a computer, and some commercial softwares for this purpose are available in market. Such softwares use kanji dictionaries as well as Japanese parsers, hence the accuracy of the results depends on the both elements, especially on the completeness of the dictionaries. Generally generating reading texts using a computer is an uncertain, inaccurate data processing; a user should prepare a comprehensive, dedicated dictionary, and have to tailor it to keep a certain quality of the results.
There is also a demand of fitting pre-obtained reading texts to original Japanese texts using a computer. The analysis of such algorithms, however, has not been thoroughly pursued because if there were a perfect Kanji reading software it could be applied to the demand also.
This paper deals with the above processing: fitting pre-obtained reading texts to original Japanese texts. This algorithm belongs to a simpler class than the general reading algorithm, so a better result is possibly obtained even with a smaller dictionary.
We start the processing without a dictionary -- just to making pattern based match between reading texts and original texts. Evaluating the kanji and Kana combinations the software generates a small dictionary, and through repeating the process we can refine the result and the dictionary.

20. Hironobu GOTODA
Visual Manipulation of Virtual Paper for Creative Origami Design (English)

ABSTRACT: With the recent advancement of computer graphics, it becomes possible to interactively manipulate stretchy deformable objects, such as jelly, rubber sheet,and soap bubbles, by solving constitutive partial differential equations. However, when unstretchable or poorly stretchable objects are to be handled, such interactive manipulation is no longer feasible unless appropriate mechanisms are incorporated into the simulation models to reduce the stiffness of the resulting equations.
This paper presents a model of paper surface deformation, which enables us to quickly and interactively bend or crease a sheet of paper. The model fully takes into account of the material's unstretchability to derive a compact parameterization scheme of paper surfaces. The compactness turns out to be advantageous especially when the manipulation is performed over a network using the VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) interface, e.g., when exploring the "Virtual Origami World- on the WWW (World Wide Web).

21. Yoshiyuki OHTAWA
Research trend research on Jurisprudence field through the analysis of adoptive situation of Grants-in-aid for Scientific Research (Japanese)

ABSTRACT: Quantitative research trend research in Humanities and Social Science field is not yet established. But in this study, in order to analyze the research trends on Jurisprudence fields I used input indicators that indicate the research resources instead of output indicators that indicate the fruits of the research activities. And the input indicators are the adoptive situation, the amount of money and cases, of the Grants-in-aid for Scientific Research.
According to the result, Politics research trend is different from the other fields and it is developing on a large scale. And on the background of close and complicated international relationship and progress of technological innovation, the new fields such as the International jurisprudence and the research of Intellectual property law are also developing. Fundamental jurisprudence and Social jurisprudence are discovered as high research potential field. Research trendof all Jurisprudence field within Humanities and Social Science are from the monetary point of view improving recently, but from the point of number of subjects, they are somewhat declining in the long range.

22. Yoshiyuki OHTAWA
A study of Science research system and Science policy in the People's Republic of China (Japanese)

ABSTRACT: After the People's Republic of China was founded, science research system in China have been divided between research institution sector such as Chinese Academy of Science institutes and higher education sector such as universities or colleges, and they have been developing independently. Research function in the higher education institutions had not been appreciated compared with the real one. But because higher education institutions have been arranged better recently, those have got good positions in the science and technology research system and are intensifying their research functions.
In recent years, Chinese government have taken positive R&D encouraging measures such as priority establishment of research infrastructures and research institutions, executions of some R&D programs. So, Chinese R&D power is also developing on a large scale. Fundamental science and technology policy in China is indicated in the Science and technology progress law(1993) and following government and Communist Party's decision(1995), we should give more attention to a series of Chinese government and Communist Party's movement concerning the science and technology policy.

23. Brian Perry

ABSTRACT: The history of the NACSIS-CAT project in the UK began in 1991, when NACSIS kindly offered to provide a free service of the NACSIS-CAT and NACSIS-IR files fora research project, to be overseen by the British Library Research & Development Department. The object of this project was to contribute to the compilation ofa union catalogue at Cambridge University of NACSIS-CAT records from the participants. The records would be of the holdings of modern printed Japanese languagematerial acquired by participating institutions. Those institutions were the University of Cambridge Library ; the Bodleian Japanese Library at the Universityof Oxford; the British Library Oriental and India Office Collections; the University of Stirling Library; the East Asian Studies Library at the University of Sheffield; the School of Oriental and African Studies Library at the University ofLondon; and the Joint Network Team. The mix of large and small libraries was extremely healthy for the project, and enabled discussion about a wide range of matters of interest to the participants.
All the participants wish to record their gratitude to NACSIS for their generosity and technical support with the project this far. The UK sites look forwardto the operational stage where libraries will be able to provide a full union catalogue of Japanese language holdings both in the UK and abroad for their users. We are especially grateful to Dr. Hiroshi Inose (the Director General of NACSIS) who initiated the project and who identified the British Library Research & Development Department as the appropriate project manager and who gave his continuing support to this very important example of Anglo-Japanese cooperation.

24. Akira MIYAZAWA
On UK NACSIS-CAT Project (Japanese)

ABSTRACT: NACSIS has been working on a cooperative UK NACSIS-CAT project with the British R24R and some Japanese sections of British university libraries. It is to produce and distribute union catalogue of Japanese publications in UK, using NACSIS-CAT, which is a bibliographic utility service offered by NACSIS. This articleis an analyze of the project to be a supplement to the official report of the project. First, aim of the international service of a bibliographic utility is discussed, then the factors for the success are analyzed. As a conclusion, for the international service of NACSIS-CAT, technical supports with local systems for the member libraries are mandatory, and the methods are sought.