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Research Bulletin of the NACSIS, No.10 (1998.3)

[last updated: 1998.5.7]
Preface (Japanese)

1. Eisuke NAITO, Mika KOSHIZUKA, Hitoshi INOUE
Mediacy: what it is and where to go (Japanese)

ABSTRACT Concepts and context are reviewed in the light of "digital literacy" to set the framework of the problems, tasks, and common interest. Government actions taken in Japan are reviewed in terms of providing access to digital knowledge, creating information literacy such as in schools, higher education, and life-long education, etc. Tasks, which have been found during the recent development in Japan, are explored for common interest to be shared with advanced as well as developing countries. Possibilities shall be discussed for the future international cooperation.

2. Toshihiko NOZUE, Mika KOSHIZUKA
Toward Construction of "Information Use Studies" : Studies on Information Use Behavior and Information Use Education in the Library and Information Science (Japanese)

ABSTRACT Studies and surveys on "information use" are getting more important in the information society. Information Use Research Section was established at R&D Department, National Center for Science Information Systems in April 1997. This article discusses studies on information use behavior and information use education in the library and information science from the viewpoint of "Information Use Studies".

Sinchrony and Diachrony in Language (Japanese)

ABSTRACT The conceptual framework of 'synchrony' and 'diachrony' in language was indicated by Saussure, at the first half of the 20th century. Since then, various interpretations have been made of these concepts. In the article the author tries to clarify the diversity of conceptual spectrum implied by these two concepts, in order to put the research in terminology in a proper theoretical setting.

4. Keizo OYAMA
A Mechanism to keep Consistency on On-line Update of Information Retrieval Systems (Japanese)

ABSTRACT In order to cope with expanding information flow over the Internet and its globalization, quasi-immediate online update functionality which enables providing new information without stopping services is required for information retrieval systems. When adopting the index server technology used in the World Wide Web to realize it, some problems regarding consistency of result sets may arise in such a case that the result records are fetched as divided segments over some time period. At the same time, an efficient method of result set management is required in order to provide conventional information retrieval functions such as set operations in a session-less service mode. This paper analyzes those problems and presents a solution by managing versions of result sets and database records.

5. Noriko KANDO
Comparison of Query Construction Methods using Text-Level Structure : Role Analysis and Query Expansion using Automatic Synonym Extraction (Japanese)

ABSTRACT This paper suggests an approach for textual information retrieval using text-level structure, and compares the effectiveness of various strategies of query construction from Japanese search topic sentences. The results of the preliminary experiments using a small- scale structure-tagged fulltext database of Japanese research papers shows that the role analysis of query terms using text-level structure, the default categories, and the role analysis and default categories with query expansion using synonyms automatically extracted from the database produce improvements of 28.1%, 28.9%,32.3%,31.8% respectively over the baseline. It seems that the text-level structure is effective for automatic synonym extraction through specifying the passages which likely contain synonyms effective for query expansion. The paper also discusses the implication of the text-level structure for textual information retrieval.

A study on lexical items in Yakut language (3) : Names of fauna and flora in Saxa epic poem olonxo (Japanese)

ABSTRACT This paper is concerned with lexical items in Yakut language, which belongs to the Turkic language family. The main part of the Yakut language community consists of Yakut or Saxa people. Their language traces well the process of their immigration to Siberia. In this paper, the author presents the data of the set of lexical items "fauna and flora" from the olonxo "Kïïs Däbilijä", one of the most famous epics of the Saxa people and suggests that such approach to the study of lexicon is effective to uncover the complicated situation of languages in Siberia. This paper is the third and the last serial of the study on the lexicon of Yakut language, which the author published in the preceeding numbers of this bulletin.

7. Masaharu YOSHIOKA
Aplication of Knowledge Intensive Engineering to Architectural Design (Japanese)

ABSTRACT Because of the finiteness of natural resources, environmental problems and so on, engineers are expected to evaluate their products from ever more various kinds of aspects. To support such claim, we proposed the concept of knowledge intensive engineering, in which various kinds of knowledge is used in a flexible and integrated manner in order to aim at generating more added-value. In addition, we also proposed Knowledge Intensive Engineering Framework (KIEF) system that forms a computational framework of knowledge intensive engineering. In this paper, I describe the concept of knowledge intensive engineering and the KIEF system. After that, I apply the KIEF system to architectural design to show the value of the system. To do so, I analyze knowledge that is used in architecture design and discuss how to implement the knowledge on the KIEF system. Finally, I show some results of this application and discuss the capability of the KIEF system.

8. Hisao YAMADA
What Determind the Fighting Power of the Armed Forces (Japanese)

ABSTRACT In this note we first examine through elementary mathematical analysis the irrationality of spiritualism once dominated Japanese thinking, and bare a real cause of our defeat in the Pacific War. Thereupon we examine some problems in our writing system which condoned us to foster such spiritualism and point out that even today we are often under the spell of irrational thinking about our own writing system.

9. Kimimoto HAYAKAWA, Atshuhiro TAKASU, Jun ADACHI
Analysis of Bibliography including OCR Misrecognition (Japanese)

ABSTRACT At digital libraries providing academic journals, documents which have relation each other should be linked. But,it is dificult to analyze bibliography owing to effect of OCR misrecognition. This paper presents a method for analysis of bibliography which obtained through OCR. The objectives of this paper are to presume bibliographich attributes using yet decided bibliography and to correct this result by probablistic context-free grammars.The paper shows the efectiveness of the presented method for analysis of bibliography.

10. Akiko AIZAWA, Yutaka SATO
Design and Implementation of Common Filter Server for HTTP Message Contents Conversion (Japanese)

ABSTRACT HTTP proxy servers, the application level gateways which transfer HTTP messages between servers and clients, play an important role in efficient transmission of HTTP messages over wide area networks. These proxy servers also provide a number of possibilities for the advanced use of the current HTTP-based information systems. With these points as background, this research focuses on the design and implementation of "Common Filter Server" (CF server) which performs contents conversion of transit messages in cooperation with existing HTTP proxy servers. In our design of CF server, we assume DeleGate, a general-purpose application protocol gateway with unique contents conversion mechanism called CFI (Common Filter Interface), as cooperating proxy server and extend CFI function of DeleGate using a database of HTTP message header templates. Our CF server is implemented using script language Perl to confirm the interaction with popular HTTP clients. Future issues include cooperative operation between CF server and DeleGate, the speed up of the CF server, and consideration of application examples.

11. Frederic ANDRES, John F. BUFORD, Kinji ONO
An Application-oriented Approach for HyTime Structured Document Management (English)

ABSTRACT In this article, we point out the important functionality needed by emerging multimedia applications such hypermedia presentations or digital library retrieval systems which require next generation database systems. Uniform management of hypermedia data is required to be suitable to various kinds of applications with different characteristics (data types, data model, data format, i/o devices). DBMSs provide efficient data storage facilities but still lack of customizability according to target applications. Moreover, content-based and structure-based retrieval managements are required by modern information retrieval systems. In order to combine the requirements of information retrieval systems and opened DBMS, we have implemented information retrieval functions inside the Application-Oriented DBMS Phasme. The document representation is either SGML or HyTime. SGML or HyTime documents are stored inside Phasme and are accessed using full text retrieval functionality. Such functionality are implemented as Phasme plugins and are stored inside Phasme. The storage management of the documents is independent from the way the user application will retrieve them. The developments achieved so far inside the AHYDS project (Active HYpermedia Delivery System) currently under process at NACSIS illustrate the chosen architecture design of the retrieval system. The performance of the current prototype is evaluated on a 40 Gbs document Benchmark showing that our approach yields excellent results.

12. Jihad BOULOS, Kinji ONO
Striping and Transfer Alternation of VOD Data on Tape-Based Tertiary Storage Libraries (English)

ABSTRACT Video-on-Demand (VOD) servers are becoming feasible. These servers have voluminous data to store and manage. If only disk-based secondary storage systems are used to store and manage this huge amount of data the system cost would be extensively high. A tape-based tertiary storage system seems to be a reasonable solution to lowering the cost of storage and management of this continuous data. However, the usage of a tertiary storage system to store large continuous data introduces several issues. These are mainly the replacement policy on disks, the decomposition and the placement of continuous data chunks on tapes, and the scheduling of multiple requests for materializing objects from tapes to disks. In this paper we address these issues and we propose solutions based on some heuristics we experimented in a simulator. We first extend a replacement policy that has been proposed for a single user environment to a multi-user one with several servicing streams. We then study different policies for continuous object decomposition and chunks placement on tapes under different characteristics of the tertiary storage drives. Finally, we propose a scheduling algorithm for object materialization; this algorithm guarantees the materialization on disks of all chunks of an object at their service deadlines in a pipelined service. We present the results of some simulations we made to measure the impacts of our proposed algorithms on the average latency time of the system.

13. Tredej TORANAWIGRAI, Frederic ANDRES, Kinji ONO
Data Exchange Bus for Advanced Media Delivery Systems Design and Architecture (English)

ABSTRACT The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA), defined by the Object Management Group (OMG), provides not only flexible operations in heterogeneous communication environment, but it also supports interoperability, reusability, and durability. However, the current implementation of CORBA in commercial products provides low performance comparing to socket and it lacks of key ORB features, eg. IDL compiler, Portable Object Adapter, and Interface Repository; and so on. Nowadays, the development of new ORBS based on CORBA (version 2.0) has been done in order to increase the performance and to integrate major key elements of ORB. One of them is TAO (The ACE ORB), developed by Washington University. TAO does not only support real-time processing but also enhances maintenance of ORB middleware, and increases portability and reuse of code by the ACE framework. In this paper, we integrate TAO to the Phasme DBMS, which is used for multimedia management, under the AHYDS project. By using the object technology supported by CORBA, the remote operation and multimedia information retrieval processing can be achieved efficiently.

14. Weiping ZHAO, Shoichiro ASANO
Delay Performance Analysis of an ATM Multiplexer (English)

ABSTRACT ATM technology has been chosen as an efficient and flexible transmission standard for B-ISDN. It is the high flexibility of ATM networks that brings about new problems for network engineers to design and operate the network. Modeling of cell arrival process and its performance analysis for bursty traffics is one of most essential parts of ATM network design. In this paper, we try to study the performance of a multiplexer of bursty traffics. A superposition of sources with bursty traffic is approximated by a two-state MMPP whose parameters can be calculated by statistical values of the original superposition. Thus, the mean cell delay performance of the multiplexed bursty traffic can computed by analyzing two-state MMPP with renewal theory. A superposition of heterogeneous bursty sources is approximated by means of a multi-state MMPP composited by two-state MMPPs each of which represents a superposition of homogeneous sources. The analytic results show that the traffic parameters consisting of only mean and peak bit rates for a general bursty traffic are not sufficient because the performance of superposition of bursty sources are quite different when changing the lasting time of burst while maintaining the same mean and peak bit rates.

15. Shunji ABE, Shoichiro ASANO
A Performance Analysis Method by a Renewal Approximation for the Queueing System with the Input of Multiplexed Burst Packets by a Discrete Time Generation (Japanese)

ABSTRACT This paper is concerned with a renewal process approximation for a queueing system at which a multiplexed ON-OFF burst traffic is offered. As one of the renewal approximation, one of authors proposed the method in which the multiplexed burst traffic was approximated by using the mean residual life time for the busy period of the queue and the index dispersion for counts(IDC)I(t) of ON-OFF burst. The ON-OFF burst model in the method was handled as each ON-OFF period was an Exponential distribution and packets on the ON-period were generated with continuous time according to a Poisson process. In order to model for many kind of burst patterns in this paper, the ON-OFF burst model is extended. As the extended model, we consider that packets on the ON-period are generated with the discrete time of a fixed T, and furthermore k-Erlang and Hyperexponential are assumed as the OFF-period distribution. The I(t) of the extended model is very complicated and its computation time is very large for large t. To reduce computation time, a new approximation for the I(t) by using IDC of Doubly Stochastic Poisson Process is proposed. The validity of the proposed method is shown by comparison with results of computer simulation for the mean waiting time of the queue.

16. Yusheng JI
Analytical Performance Study of Traffic Shaping Mechanisms (English)

ABSTRACT Traffic shaping can reduce delay and loss in the network nodes by smoothing the traffic before letting it entering the network. Rate control algorithms such as Leaky Bucket and Moving Window are proposed for traffic shaping. Although many efforts have been made to analyze the performance of Leaky Bucket as a rate control scheme, few results can be found for Moving Window-liked mechanisms. In this paper, we build a general purposed analytical model for Moving Window scheme, by dealing it as a G/D/m queueing system, give the resolution for the Poisson and batch Poisson arrival, and by showing the results obtained through analytical models for Moving Window and Leaky Bucket, and results of simulation, give comparison of the performance of these two schemes when they are used for traffic shaping.

17. Takayuki FUJINO
Search Domain Model for Reducing Redundant FTP Traffics (Japanese)

ABSTRACT Current file resource searching systems, such as archie,search engines don't reflect actual network topology. Because of this, user sometimes gets some files from anonymous ftp located in farther site and it occures redundant FTP traffics. This paper discusses about new scheme "search domain" and we attempt to make user to get files from topological nearby site.

18. Yuan SUN
Item Response Patterns and Logistic Models (Japanese)

ABSTRACT The first item response model was the normal-ogive model which postulated normal cumulative distribution function as a response function for the item. Because logistic cdf is very close to normal cdf but has more mathematical advantages over it, Birnbaum suggested to replace the normal-ogive model by the logistic model, which is now one of the most popular unidimensional item response models. The purpose of this paper is to obtain logistic models directly from item response patterns without the assumption of IRT models. Meanwhile, in this paper a statistic definition for subject's latent traits, the relationship between subject's and items' parameters with the average amount of information will be made based on the item response patterns.

19. Masaki NISHIZAWA
A development of large scale Web based questionnaire forms with a middleware and a profile of the answerers (Japanese)

ABSTRACT A questionaire forms with WebObjects as a web server application toolkit were developed. The respondent can choose reply format from Web based form and ordinary postal mail, alternatively. The ratio of respondents choosing the Web based form is only 10.2% because of comparatively large questionaire form with 32 items in 8 submission pages. The ratio of answers including missing submission pages are about only 1% with contrived application format. The ratios of Web based respondents by research field are also presented.

20. Boyd R. COLLINS
Rating the Web (English)

ABSTRACT Under the current rapid development of Internet, it is urgent need to establish criterion and methodology for evaluating (rating) the vast Web sites. Such criterion are different from that of the conventional print media: Authority of Web authors; Identification of authors; Interactive and directive confirmation with authors; Organizational identification of Web sites; Correctness, usefulness, comprehensiveness, uniqueness of Content; currency of content, Organization of Web pages (navigability), Analysis of the users' tasks. Rapid innovation of the Web technology as well as the conservative attitudes of users (in this paper, librarian) are two factors to note in evaluationg the Web. The Internet will never be able to achieve its true potential until those who have this understanding step forward to design access applications, to rate websites and start rating services, and provide leadership in Internet information policy.