Events
Events
2017
 
The 3rd SPARC Japan Seminar 2017
"Beyond Open Science"
Date&Time February 21, 2018 / 10:30-17:30
Place National Institute of Informatics, 12F 1208 & 1210 Conference Room

The event was held on February 21, 2018. 67 people participated.

Please find more infomation on the Japanese page. Videos, slides and documents will be available later.

Outline
The Budapest Open Access Initiative in 2003 and the G8 Open Data Charter in 2013 that the former was a bottom-up and self-independent activity of science academies and the latter was a top-down policy statement, were crossing each other but aiming at the common direction and became the turning point to accelerate the implementation of “Open Science”.

Nevertheless, even though this direction is on the same way of the digitization over our entire society, we are not clear of whether this means that we are at last realizing the ideal way of activity “science” that human beings have engaged in so far, or that the digitization as it is a change of tool revolutionizes the essence of scientific activities. In fact, together with this digitization, the form of scholarly communication changes so much, and the style of knowledge production and transfer in laboratories, class rooms, and “libraries” is drastically changing as we cannot predict what it will be.

In this changing, to clarify the direction of our concrete activities to which we should go forward, it is hopeful that participants stop for only one day and discuss the original form of arts and sciences, so that this will be helpful for them to find the main subject for the stakeholders of academic knowledge production and go for the next step according to their own cases.
Program
Moderator:Kazuhiro Hayashi (National Institute of Science and Technology Policy)
Time

Title

Speaker

10:30-10:35

Opening Greeting

Kazuhiro Hayashi
(National Institute of Science and Technology Policy)

10:35-10:40

Outline

Kei Kurakawa
(National Institute of Informatics)

10:40-11:25

Really Understanding ‘Open Science’-Its Beneficial Potentials, Its Fragility, Its Functional Performance Problems, and How NOT to Try to Fix Them-

[Abstract]

Paul A. David
(Emeritus Professor of Stanford University)

11:25-11:30

Break

11:30-12:00

ICSU-WDS and Open Science(TBC)

Yasuhiro Murayama
(Natl. Inst. of Info. and Communications Technology (NICT) / ICSU-World Data System)

12:00-12:20

Q&A / Short Discussion

*Paul A. David
(Emeritus Professor of Stanford University)

*Yasuhiro Murayama
(Natl. Inst. of Info. and Communications Technology (NICT) / ICSU-World Data System)

12:20-13:20

Break

13:20-14:05

Enabling Open Research

[Abstract]

Heather Joseph
(SPARC North America)

14:05-14:10

Break

14:10-14:35

Research Lifecycle and the Support by Academic Libraries and Universities in Digital Era

[Abstract]

Keiko Kurata
(Faculty of Letters, Keio university)

14:35-15:00

Ideal Scholarly Communication Environment Provided by University Libraries in the Digital Age

[Abstract]

Midori Ichiko
(Mita Media Center, Keio University)

15:00-15:20

Q&A / Short Discussion

*Heather Joseph
(SPARC North America)

*Keiko Kurata
(Faculty of Letters, Keio university)

*Midori Ichiko
(Mita Media Center, Keio University)

15:20-15:35

Break

15:35-16:50

Panel Discussion

From Moderator:"Taking the Scientific Knowledge Seriously: A Consideration in the Era of Open Science "

[[ Moderator ]]
*Yasunori Fukagai
(Graduate School of International Social Sciences, Yokohama National University)

[[ Panelist ]]
*Paul A. David
(Emeritus Professor of Stanford University)

*Yasuhiro Murayama
(Natl. Inst. of Info. and Communications Technology (NICT) / ICSU-World Data System)

*Heather Joseph
(SPARC North America)

*Keiko Kurata
(Faculty of Letters, Keio university)

*Midori Ichiko
(Mita Media Center, Keio University)

16:50-17:00

Closing

Hideaki Takeda
(National Institute of Informatics)

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Speaker
Paul A. David (Emeritus Professor of Stanford University)

Paul Allan David is Professor of Economics and Senior Fellow of the Institute for Economic Policy Research at Stanford University. He is Professor Emeritus of Economics and Economic History in the University of Oxford, Emeritus Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford and currently Senior Fellow of the Oxford Internet Institute. David is the author of more than 150 journal articles and contributions to edited volumes, as well as of the author and editor of several books including Technical Choice, Innovation and Economic Growth (1975) and The Economic Future in Historical Perspective (2003). He was among the pioneering practitioners of the "new economic history," and is known internationally for wide-ranging contributions in the fields of American economic history, economic and historical demography, and the economics of science and technology. Investigation of the conditions that give rise to ‘path dependence’—the persisting influence of historical events in micro and macro economic phenomena—is a recurring theme in his research. Two main areas of contemporary economic policy research have emerged in his work the past two decades: the evolution of information technology standards and network industries, and the influence of legal institutions and social norms upon the funding and conduct of scientific research in the public sector, and the interactions between that latter and private sector R&D. David currently leads an international research project on the organization, performance and viability of free and open source software.

Yasuhiro Murayama (Natl. Inst. of Info. and Communications Technology (NICT) / ICSU-World Data System)

Dr. Yasuhiro Murayama is a Research Executive Director of Strategic Program Office at National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) of Japan, Member of Science Council of Japan, and also serving as ex officio of ICSU-World Data System (WDS) Scientific Committee, Antarctic Observation Deliberation Committee at National Institute of Polar Research, G7 Open Science Working Group as endorsed by G7 Science Ministers' Meeting May 2016. Also he served as a Visiting Professor at Research Institute of Sustainable Humanosphere of Kyoto University in 2013-2014, Board member of Japan Geoscience Union (2013-2014), member of Expert Panel of Open Science Promotion at Cabinet Office of Japan 2014-2015, OECD/GSF-WDS Working Group of International Coordination of Data Infrastructures for Open Science (2016-2017), and High Level Expert Group of European Open Science Cloud of European Commission (2015-2017). He was awarded by Japan's Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in 2007. Dr. Murayama received his Ph.D. from Kyoto University in 1993.

Heather Joseph (SPARC North America)

Heather Joseph has served as SPARC’s Executive Director since 2005. She has focused SPARC’s efforts on supporting new models for the open sharing of digital articles, data and educational resources. Under her stewardship, SPARC has become widely recognized as the leading international force advocating for effective open access policies and practices. Based in Washington, D.C., Ms. Joseph regularly serves as an advisor to U.S. policy makers on issues relating to open policy. As a member of the U.S Department of Commerce Data Advisory Council, she is tasked with providing input to the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on open data policies. She has served in similar roles for the U.S. National Institutes of Health, the 2016 Presidential Transition Team for Open Data, and the U.S. National Academy of Science.

Keiko Kurata (Faculty of Letters, Keio university)

In 1987 she finished graduate school of library and information science at Keio University. In 1988 she served as a lecturer at faculty of letters, Keio University, associate professor in 1993, and professor in 2001. Her research interest is scholarly communication, especially digitization of information media, open access, research data.

Midori Ichiko (Mita Media Center, Keio University)

Midori Ichiko is Administrative Director of the Mita Media Center, Keio University. She is a member of the Steering Committee of the Japan Alliance of University Library Consortia for E-Resources (JUSTICE) and the SPARC Japan Governing Board.

Yasunori Fukagai (Graduate School of International Social Sciences, Yokohama National University)

Yasunori Fukagai is professor at Yokohama National University, International Graduate School of Social Sciences. Following to the academic carrier at other institutions since 1983, he moved to Yokohama National on 2005. During the academic years of 2014 and 2015, he took the role of the director of the University Library of YNU. He works on the fields of history of ideas and social ethics. In August 2014, he organized the thirteenth conference of the International Society for Utilitarian Studies in Yokohama. Adding to the major topics of his research, he recently considers the new possibilities of “analogue humanities” linked with the growing basis of digital humanities. Very recently, he contributed to the Journal of College and University Libraries an article entitled “Media for Knowledge, Institutionalization of Science, and the Sphere of Open Science (1)” written in Japanese (DOI:https://doi.org/10.20722/jcul.1701). He is a member of the SPARC Japan Governing Board.

Kei Kurakawa (National Institute of Informatics)

http://researchmap.jp/kurakawa/?lang=english

Kazuhiro Hayashi (National Institute of Science and Technology Policy)

Member of SPARC Japan Governing Board

He has been in Scholarly publishing, in a wide variety of roles, for more than 20 years. At Chemical Society of Japan, he has worked successively as an Editor, a Production Manager, an E-journal Manager, and a Promotions Manager. Covering a broad range of roles in publishing, he is focused on scholarly communication through E-journals, and he has reconstructed and improved the way publishing is managed through his skills involving information technology. He now studies a Science for Science and Innovation Policy to give administrative people and policy makers some evidences for Science and Technology policy. His current main task is policy implication of Open Science and Open Access, together with developing a new way to foresight ST trends. An expert member of the working party of Open Science for G7 Science and Technology Ministry meeting, also an expert member of the OECD/GSF project of Open Science.

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Abstract
Really Understanding ‘Open Science’-Its Beneficial Potentials, Its Fragility, Its Functional Performance Problems, and How NOT to Try to Fix Them-
(Paul A. David)

My presentation advances three connected points about what is properly meant by “Open Science’, its potential functionality for sustaining economic growth, the nature and sources of this social system’s contemporary disappointing performance, and how we should not undertake to remedy those problems. These understandings, I contend provide a necessary foundation for contemporary discussions and decisions about science and technology policies.

First, “open science” is best understood as multi-dimensional dynamical process involving the behavioral interactions of functionally differentiated sub-communities: educators, theoretical and empirical researchers, readers, authors, reviewers, research funding public institutions and private business organizations, publishers, archivists, a journal and book editors, and referees and reviewers. Each of these sub-communities, local and international as they may be, has an associated normative structure that that is neither externally imposed nor perfectly self-enforcing. Being most universal in its scope, or at least in its international reach, the “open science norms” have become those that are most fully articulated and familiar. Consequently, it is necessary to proceed from a brief review the functional performance implications of adherence to the individual norms, and the interaction consequences of norm-adherence that should be more widely grasped and appreciated..

Second, “open science” processes can be expected to function at the macro-dynamical level so that scientific resources are allocated at the micro-level in a manner that is in accord with its operating norms, and produce allocative effects that are complementary to the beneficial micro-level workings of competitive market-based efficiencies in resource allocation. Were the coupled subsystems not plagued by “negative externalities” that they may generate (such as global warming), their interdependent actions could be relied upon to yield sustainable economic growth. An understanding of this is the foundation upon which science and technology policy strategies and the selection of instrumental tactics should be based..

Third, it is to be expected that, like all human social systems, deviant individual conduct is to be expected where-ever norms have been sharply articulated, and hence in research laboratories and corporate offices. Institutional and organization design failures, similarly, will strain the normative guidelines that leaders of those socio-legal organizational entities promulgate. They therefore call for continuous corrective efforts to counteract costly market failures on the one hand, and, on the other hand, to contain the extent of individual scientific misconduct so that it does not undermine the basis for reciprocal collegial trust, or overwhelm the internal corrective capacity of the subsystem’s knowledge-generating and –disseminating institutions. Open science’s structural features have evolved historically and the persistence of institutionalize legacies from its past is a potential source of dysfunctional modern outcomes. The later, institutionalized survivals, however, should not be hastily discarded on the dubious grounds that that the successful introduction, and popular acceptance of “free and open source software” – especially in educational and scientific research activities—has rendered them obsolete and readily replaceable by software-implemented “openness” in all aspects of scientific activity. Understanding the ineluctably human social nature of open science processes, and the limitations of algorithmic information processes quickly dispels the mistaken notion that the vexing performance problems that we encounter in the workings of the open science system are not of a nature that permits them to be readily “fixed” by substituting an integrated array of “open” computer algorithms for communicative, knowledge-sharing human actors.

Enabling Open Research
(Heather Joseph)

Globally, funders are placing a growing emphasis on opening up many aspects of the research process - from requiring open access to articles and data sets, to encouraging use of preprints, to actively exploring open peer review - citing a host of benefits that such openness enables. The increasing adoption of polices supporting these open behaviors has presented a variety of new complexities to all stakeholders in the research enterprise, from individual researchers to research institutions as a whole. This talk will explore both the challenges and opportunities that the movement towards a more Open research enterprise presents, and suggest strategies for accelerating and smoothing the transition process.

Research Lifecycle and the Support by Academic Libraries and Universities in Digital Era
(Keiko Kurata)

The Research lifecycle, from searching many information resources, collecting and analyzing research data to preparation of research results, have been transited to digital form. Traditionally academic libraries have supported research activity by providing the information resources such as academic journals, academic books, etc. However, the progress of electronic journals and open access has begun to transform this role. In addition, university have been forced to reconsider their role for supporting research activity with that national and international environment for open science movement have promoted. This presentation will examine how academic libraries and universities can support researchers in terms of research lifecycle in digital era.

Ideal Scholarly Communication Environment Provided by University Libraries in the Digital Age
(Midori Ichiko)

University libraries in Japan have supported researchers mainly by the collection and supply of materials for a long time. As digitalized more, the information environment of researchers has been changed on a large scale, and there have been changes in the work of librarians and their behaviors toward the research support. However, we cannot say that the libraries support “open science”. This talk discusses the reality of libraries, researchers, and publishers from my experiences and considers a direction where the university libraries in Japan could go ahead.

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Last Updated: 2018/02/23